Cereal production system
Among the cereals paddy stands as most
important crop of the district followed very remotely by wheat and maize.
Out of net cropped areas (198615 hectares) of the district the paddy alone
occupies 105965 hectares and covers about 53.35 % of the net cultivated
area of the district. On the other hand wheat and pulses occupy 2.36% and
4.55% net cultivated area of the district. The productivity of paddy in
the district is 1390 kg/ha which is less than the state average (1475
kg/ha) and the national average (3040 kg/ha). The productivity of wheat in
the district is 1275 kg/ha which is far below both the state and national
Paddy is grown in three distinct seasons
viz. Autumn paddy or Ahu rice (March/April to June/July),
Winter paddy or Sali rice (June/July to November/December) and
Summer paddy or Boro rice (November/December to May/June). Out of
105965 hectares of total paddy area winter paddy is occupying an area of
54950 hectares followed by autumn paddy (31915 hectares) and summer paddy
(19100 hectares). On the other hand with the introduction of Shallow Tube
Wells (STWs) with the assistance of World Bank and NABARD during nineties
an abrupt increase in area under summer paddy and Autumn paddy has taken
place through out the district. Since autumn paddy grown traditionally as
direct seeded crop under rain fed condition, therefore productivity is
very low. After installation of STWs, the farmers also have shifted
towards cultivation of summer paddy and hence the area under autumn paddy
also gradually increased.
Existing cropping pattern and cropping sequences of the district
The cropping intensity of the district is
143.49 % which is less than state average (152%). Rice, jute, toria, green
gram, black gram and vegetables are the important crops and thereby double
and triple cropping has to be initiated in the district. The major
cropping pattern of the district is as under
Fertilizer Consumption Pattern in the district:
With the increase in irrigated
area and replacement of local variety by high yielding variety especially
in paddy and vegetables crops it is expected that the fertilizer
consumption may further increase in coming years. There is a need to
mobilize the farming community to avoid indiscriminate use of fertilizers
and therefore practices like integrated nutrient management shall have to
be popularized. For rational use of chemical fertilizers, the knowledge
about the use of fertilizers must be gathered among the farmers. To
increase the productivity of different crops fertilizer consumption shall
have to be increased.
Fertilizer Consumption Pattern in
Name of Fertilizer
2006 07 (in tones)
2007 08 (in tones)
Source: Deptt. of Agriculture,
Agriculture is the backbone of economy in the Darrang district. It provides livelihood to about 85% of the population.
In most of the villages, farm machineries such as power tillers and
tractors are in great demand to the farmers as they are now interested for
double/ triple cropping system. The Govt. of India and the state Govt. are
attaching due importance for promotion of such activities in its pursuit
to boost up productivity and agricultural production. In view of high
operation cost, the climatic condition under which the field works are
undertaken, the use of farm machinery is necessary to achieve better level
of production. The status of farm mechanization in the district may be
viewed from the population of tractors, power tillers and sprayers as
Type of machineries
ii) Power Tillers
Source: Deptt. of Agril.
HORTICULTURE SCENERIO OF DARRANG DISTRICT
Assam is a traditionally horticultural State and the
socio economic fabric of its people is largely constituted by
horticultural components. The horticultural beauty lies in its history,
culture, traditions and in the mindset of the people which has imbibed a
lot from this colorful science of fruits, flowers, vegetables, spices,
plantation crops, root & tuber crops, nut crops, medicinal, aromatics,
mushroom, bee keeping and lately bamboo. With a mere acreage of 5.46 lakh
hectors under horticulture, out of gross cropped area of 36.37 lakh ha, it
is only 15% of this area. Horticulture has a commitment that no other
sector may perhaps can come up as parallel i.e. in terms of its importance
to achieve nutritional security and as a most viable component of
environment friendly industrial base. This is a sector gaining importance
day by day and the reason behind for calling it as sunrise area are
diverse nature of its products to suit different agro climatic situation,
higher bio mass production per unit area and thereby more income per unit
area, scope for improvement in rural diet with least investment or any
extra effort, scope for massive employment generation, unveiling new
horizons of value addition and the science itself being intellectually
satisfying with aesthetic outlook has an universal appeal for both
developed and developing nations. The situation can be looked under
Assams perspective as here under :
1. Horticultural sector which includes fruits, vegetables, tuber crops,
floriculture, mushroom, medicinal & aromatic plants, spices and plantation
crops have proved beyond doubt to be the best diversification of
agriculture for better land use.
2. The soil and climate is so ideal for a wide range of horticultural
crops that experts comment Assam as a Sleeping Giant.
5. Sustainable approach to raise productivity is best suited when
horticulture is taken into account due our existing production system
6. The natural flora of Assam have huge number of hitherto unexploited
medicinal and aromatic plants including minor fruits and orchids. Any
strategy to boost up this sector will particularly help local and more
particularly tribal farmers. This has a bearing on preserving genetic
variability that exists in case of many horticultural crops also.
Area, production and productivity of
horticulture provides the key to commercialization of agriculture. It
paves the way for additional employment opportunities by gearing up the
food processing sector. The district offers good scope for plantation and
horticulture, as the agro-climatic conditions are conducive for growth and
development of some of the important horticultural crops. There are
approximately 2000 ha Khas land, 4890 ha cultivable wasteland, 5149 ha of
cultivable fallow and about 250 ha needing replacement of old plantation
areas totaling 12289 ha still available for horticultural development. At
present, the district has about 70 small orchards (0.5 to 4 bighas) and 30
medium to big orchards (above 4 bighas) growing fruits and plantation
crops. The area, production and productivity of different horticultural
and plantation crops are increasing. Irrigation potential credited in the
district is 35.41%. Commonly grown horticultural crops are banana, orange,
pineapple, papaya, jackfruit, guava; mango etc. major plantation crops
include areca nut & coconut besides tea and rubber, which are grown
commercially. Major species include ginger, turmeric, green chilly and
others including black pepper and coriander.
Production Target of horticultural crops in Darrang district (kg/ha)
Approaches for Horticultural Development:
There is a vast scope for development of
horticulture in the district which can contribute substantially in the
economy of the farmers. The approach of horticultural development should
be different from other crops.
Growers should be supplied with credit by bank finance/ Kishan Credit
Cards, planting materials, other inputs through KVK or farm/
Nurseries and Technology
Mission by state govt. department.
Facilities to be supported by proper marketing, cold storage and proper
processing of perishable crops.
the needs for establishing strong growers cooperative where farmers are
Quick and speedy technical advisory services with the help
of mobile Van for reaching to the growers or farmers level and to
facilitate the scientific
network of production and marketing.
Encourage to grow fruits and spices as alternative feasible crops in most
In addition to that
use of improved cultural techniques including improved varieties with good
quality and nutritional value should
be the aim
in the developmental programme.
Existing Horticultural Practices in the District:
Cultivation of crops is done under technical
guidance of field staff as well as farmers own indigenous method
.Traditionally cultivation is done organically in the district. To
increase production generally inorganic fertilizers are used in
agricultural crops but it has some disadvantage. To remove these
detrimental effects organic concepts like extension research and
production will come. The existing practices are discussed below:
In low lands,
ploughing is mainly done with bullock driven cart 34 ploughings are given
at a time for fine tilt. Tractor is used in case of large scale
cultivation. For new cultivation clearance is done with dao and jungle is
Planting of crop is done during
a particular crop season. In places like major pocket areas planting of
vegetables are practiced in hectares. Standard planting distance is not
Assam being a rain fed state there is
not much alternative for source of irrigation. Vast portion of the
cultivated land are still rainfed. Approximately 1, 19,678 hectare areas
are under irrigation system in the district according to the survey
conducted by Department of Agri. During 2006-07. The rest of
the area are either rainfed or irrigated through natural precipitation in
case of plantation crops and fruits.
Fertilizers and Pesticides:
Fertilizers and pesticides are used very nominally during plantation.
According to the survey of agriculture dept. during 2007 08 in the major
pockets than largest area brought under fertilizer.
Whereas Darrang has
the largest area brought under plant protection. The proper dose of
fertilizer and pesticide application are not followed by the farmers due
to lack of proper training an awareness of the subject.
Integrated Nutrient Management (INM):
Assam has the lowest per unit fertilizer consumption in the country (about
57.2 kg/ha in terms of nutrient) as vast portion of cultivated area are
still rainfed where fertilizer has not much role play. Stress is now given
on organic farming under which use of organic manure, vermi compost, green
manuring, micro nutrient and bio fertilizer is promoted. Thus, effort will
be to promote the use of organic inputs along with popularization of
organic farming in bigger way for overall fertility management so also to
make agriculture sustainable. Green manuring like dhaincha are also used
in some part of the district. Organic manure (farm yard manure) is most
commonly used manure in the district. Now a days vermi compost are being
used by the farmers to some extent. Some entrepreneurs are now a days
culturing and producing vermi compost for sale.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM):
holds the corner stone of crop protection effort apply all components or
method of IPM in order to keep the plant enemies below economic threshold
level. There is need to reduce the use of chemical pesticide replacing by
biopesticides and plant pesticides having no adverse effects. In the
district neem based pesticides like neembicides are used. Indigenous
technologies are used and thereafter kill them by burning down the whole
In major part of the
district it is followed by intercrops like brinjal, colocasia, chillies,
bhindi, turmeric, ginger, cabbage, cauliflower, etc. During summer season,
vegetable like cowpea, bitter gourd, pumpkins are grown and during winter
season cauliflower, carrot, radishes are grown as inter crops in new
plantation like banana , areca nut and coconut.
Minor Fruits / Vegetables of Assam:
Besides the above mentioned crops, some indigenous
minor fruits and vegetables are grown naturally by the farmers. These are
much suited to the existing climatic condition. Most of the local
varieties do much better than the improved varieties.
Many wild relative
of edible fruits and vegetables are found growing luxuriantly in the open
field as well as in open forest areas. The indigenous vegetables are
common part of the diet of the people. Most of these vegetables are eaten
for their medicinal properties. Proper documentation is need for these
probable endangered indigenous crops.
joint venture of Assam Agricultural University and Department of
Agriculture recommended a full package of practices of Horticultural crops
besides these different varieties of coconut, cucumber, ridgegourd, brinjal,
tomato have been evolved for cultivation. Tissue culture banana is also
recommended. In Bari level multistoroyed cropping is gaining popularity.
Poly houses for off season vegetables are highly demanded for high market
Strategies Need for Horticultural Development:
Establishment of nurseries in each district /blocks under state of
horticulture for certified growers or progressive farmers
Arrangement of training/ workshop to propagate orchard management
packages to support production and maximize yield.
Establishment of production site for organic compost in each
identifies pockets to support organic nutrient management
Adoptions of advanced techniques of agriculture like
crop diversification, contract farming, precision farming, fruits based
system and reach the unsearched in real time.
Development of wholesale market, rural areas market at district
level near to t he city.
Post Harvest Technology:
Being living organism, the condition and marketable
life of fruits and vegetables are affected by temperature, humidity, the
composition of surrounding atmosphere, level of damage before, during and
after harvest and degree of infection with microorganism, insect etc. They
will deteriorate during storage through loss of moisture, loss of stored
energy (carbohydrate), physical losses through pest and disease attack,
losses from physiological disorder, fibre development, greening in potato,
seed germination etc. Therefore proper harvest management plays a pivotal
role in rural economy.
Vegetables and fruits after harvest are either used
for home consumption or sale in the local market. There is no concept of
packaging. All horticultural produce is either transported loose in bamboo
basket or in gunny bags which results in heavy losses during
transportation. Fruits processing need more emphasis in the district as it
is the integral part of horticultural development. The poor communication
and transport problem necessitate immediate intervention.
Horticultural Markets in Darrang District:
It is observed an unorganized fruits and vegetable
market if price is concerned. Price is variable only on demand and supply
in rural markets. Therefore there should be fixation committee of price
for better management in the market. Time to time broadcasting and
telecasting in radio and TV is most essential part for market review. The
farmers either arrange their own marketing system or they sell to local or
outside middle men at lower prices. Fruits and vegetables prices go down
in nominal rates in rural areas and in urban market of the district the
prices leads to the higher consumer price. In marketing the garden
owners sell the whole orchard like fruit and vegetables to private party
at nominal price. The private parties or middlemen sell the whole orchard
with profit. Prices of the horticultural commodities are highly
fluctuating which varies from season to season. During the crop season the
prices are lower but during off season price of the commodities rises to
the double the original price.
Integrated Farming system.
Integrated crop management.
Production of Organic inputs.
Integrated Pest management.
Bio-control of pests and diseases.
Post harvest technology
Grading, Packaging and storing of field crops and horticultural crops.
Protective cultivation (Green house, Shade house etc.)
Plant propagation techniques.
Production and Management technology in potato.